ARTHST1 - Handout 7

Hellenistic Art
Considered the period between the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) and the beginnings of the Roman Empire (146 BC)
Classical Greek
Capture the Ideal and Perfect
Serenity and Peace
Individual and Specific
Individual Emotion
Pathos and Melodrama
This map shows how Alexander the Great’s kingdom was broken down after his death. His death marked the beginning of the Hellenistic (or “Greek-like”) period.
Temple Of Olympian Zeus
175-132 BCE, Athens.
Corinthian Style Greek Order – not just for interiors anymore
The Hellenistic Period
Reconstructed West front of the Altar of Zeus
 Pergamon, Turkey ca 175  BC
Considered by many to be the most famous of all Hellenistic sculptural ensembles.    The monument’s west front has been reconstructed in Berlin (this image).
All around the platform was a sculptured frieze almost four hundred feet long populated by some one hundred larger-than-life size figures.  The subject is the battle of Zeus and the gods against the giants.  It is the most extensive representation Greek artists ever attempted of that epic conflict for control of the world.
In the third century BC, King Attalos I had successfully turned back an invasion by the Gauls in Asia Minor.  The large scale of the Altar of Zeus alluded to the Pergamene victory over those barbarians.
Apadana (Audience Hall) of Darius I and his son Xerxes I.  Persepolis, Iran ca. 518-460 BCE
Persepolis Friezes on Apadana
Assyrian Leader Ashurbanipal sticking it to a lion
The Hellenistic Period
Reconstructed West front of the Altar of Zeus
 Pergamon, Turkey ca 175  BC
The Hellenistic Period
Nike of Samothrace
 Samothrace, Greece ca. 190  BC
Nike’s missing right arm was once raised high to crown the naval victory in the same manner that Nike places a wreath on Athena on the Altar of Zeus.
The wind sweeps her drapery.  Her himation bunches in thick folds around her right leg, and her chiton is pulled tightly across her abdomen and left leg.  The statues theatrical effect was amplified by its setting.
This sculpture was part of a two-tiered fountain.  In the lower basin were large boulders.  The fountain’s flowing water created the illusion of rushing waves dashing up against the ship. The sound of splashing water added an to the sense of drama.  Art and nature were combined.
The Hellenistic Period
The sculptor carefully studied and reproduced the distinctive features of the foreign Gauls, most notably their long, bushy hair and mustaches and torques
(neck bands) they frequently wore.
Here, the chieftain drives a sword into his own chest after having already killed his own wife, as it is evident that he prefers suicide to surrender and an indefinite life of slavery.
In the best Lysippan tradition, the group only can be fully appreciated by walking around it.   From one side the observer sees the Gaul’s intensely expressive face, from another his powerful body, and from a third the woman’s limp and almost lifeless body.
The Hellenistic Period
Dying Gaul
 Pergamon, Turkey ca. 230-220  BC
Again, this depiction is reflective of the drama seen on the stages of the Greek amphitheaters at this time.  The dying Gaul winces in pain as blood pours from the large gash in his chest. 
The concept of pathos became increasingly popular toward the end of the history of Greek sculpture.
The musculature was rendered in an exaggerated manner.  Note the chest’s tautness and the left leg’s bulging veins —— implying that the unseen hero who has struck down this noble and savage foe must have been an extraordinary man.
The depiction of a variety of ethnic groups was a new concept in Greek art and one that would be pushed much further throughout the Hellenistic age.
The Hellenistic Period
Aphrodite (of Melos)
 Melos, Greece ca. 150-125  BC
This demonstrates that the “undressing” of Aphrodite by Praxiteles had become the norm by this point in Greek art, but Hellenistic sculptors went beyond  the Late Classical master an openly explored the female form’s eroticism.
Here, Aphrodite is more modestly draped than the “Aprodite of Knidos but more overtly sexual.  Her left hand (separately preserved) holds the apple Paris awarded her when he judged her as the most beautiful goddess of all.  Her right hand may have lightly grasped the edge of her drapery near the left hip in a halfhearted attempt to keep it from slipping farther down her body.
The Hellenistic Period
Aphrodite, Eros and Pan
 Delos, Greece ca. 100  BC
Here, Aphrodite defends herself with one of her sandals as the semi-human, semi-goat Pan attempts to gain her interest.
Her son Eros flies into grab one of Pan’s horns in an attempt to protect his mother from an unspeakable fate.
 Images such as these that appear during the Hellenistic Era are a far cry from the solemn depictions of the deities of Mount Olympus produced during the Classical times.
Special attention was paid to the depiction of Eros.  Here he is sculpted with the proportions and softness of an actual infant, rather than the miniature adult that often had his depiction in the past.
The Hellenistic Period
Sleeping Saytr  (Barberini Faun)
 Rome, Italy ca. 230-220  BC
Archaic statues smile at their viewers, and even when Classical statues look away  from the viewer they are always awake and alert.  Hellenistic sculptors often portrayed sleep.
This concept is the antithesis of the Classical ideals of rationality and discipline.
The saytr, a follower of Dionysos, has had too much wine and has fallen into an intoxicated sleep.
Compare the sexuality of this sculpture with that of the early Archaic kouros figures.
It is not surprising that when Hellenistic sculptors began to explore the human body’s sexuality, they turned their attention to both men and women
The Hellenistic Period
Seated Boxer
 Rome, Italy ca. 100-50  BC
Hellenistic sculptors often rendered the common theme of the male athlete in a new way.
This boxer is not a victorious young athlete with a perfect face and body, but rather a heavily battered, defeated veteran whose upward gaze may have been directed at the man who had just beaten him.
This boxer’s broken nose, distorted face, bleeding wounds and “cauliflower ears” add the sense of realism that the Hellenistic artists sought.
The Hellenistic Period
Old Market Woman
ca. 150-100  BC
This is one of a series of statues of  old men and women from the lowest rungs of the social order.  Shepherds, fishermen, and drunken beggars are common- the kind of people who were pictured earlier on red-figure vases but never before were thought worthy of monumental statuary.
This old woman is depicted carrying chickens, fruit, and vegetables to sell at the market. 
Her face is wrinkled, her body is bent with age, and her spirit is broken by a lifetime of poverty.  She carries on because she must, not because she derives any pleasure from life.

Hellenistic art  reflects a new and unstable social climate in Greece. Social instability gave way to the depiction of a much wider variety of physical types, including different ethnic types. 
The Hellenistic Period
Laocoön and his sons
 Rome, Italy ca. Early 1st century  AD
This sculpture was discovered in Rome in 1506 ( at the height of the Italian Renaissance). 
The Roman poet vividly described the strangling of Laocoön and his two sons by sea serpents while sacrificing at an altar.  The gods who favored the Greeks in the war against Troy had sent the serpents to punish Laocoön, who had tried to warn his compatriots about the danger of bringing the Greeks’ wooden horse within the walls of their city.
Everything about this piece speaks to the Hellenistic ideal.  The facial expressions are exaggerated, the muscles fully flexed, dramatic movement is indicated, and strong diagonals dominate the composition.

ARTHST1 - Handout 6

Ancient Greek Art
Can be classified into the following categories:
Geometric Period    ca. 900-700 B.C.E.
Orientalizing Period    ca. 725-600 B.C.E.
Archaic Period    ca. 625-480 B.C.E.
Early Classical Period    ca. 480-450 B.C.E.
High Classical Period    ca. 450-400 B.C.E.
Late Classical Period    ca. 400-330 B.C.E.
Hellenistic Period    ca. 330-31 B.C.E.
Mesopotamian =  Worship
Egyptian =  Afterlife
The Geometric Period
•    The beginning of Greek art is found in painted pottery and small scale sculpture.
•    Artists established different categories of shapes of ceramic vessels- most important was the amphora - two- handled vase used to carry wine and oil
•    Around 800 BC, pottery began to move away from purely non-objective designs - ornamental figures.
•    Dipylon Vase was a grave monument - bottom has holes through which liquid offerings filtered down to the dead below- done in remembrance rather than to appease the soul of the dead.
•    The vase functions as a grave marker depicting the funeral procession of an obviously well respected individual.  
•    The magnitude of his funeral procession speaks to the wealth and position of the deceased family in the community.
•    Contains no reference to an afterlife
•    The nature of the ornamentation of these early works has led art historians to designate these as GEOMETRIC.  (all empty spaces are filled with circles and M-shaped ornament.  No open spaces.)

•    Geometric Krater from the Dyplon Cemetery
•    Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BC
•    The Geometric Period
•    Hero and Centaur   ca. 750-730 BC
•    The image of the man is thought to be Herakles battling the Centaur.  
•    This image demonstrates the Geometric  artist not being limited to depicting scenes from daily life.
•    The centaur is a purely Greek  invention that has obviously created a problem for this artist, as no such creature has ever been seen.  
Even at the beginning of Greek figural art, we can see the instinct for the natural beauty of the human figure .  This concept is reflected in the fact that Greek athletes exercised without their clothes and even competed nude in the Olympic Games from very early times.
The Orientalizing Period
Mantiklos Apollo
Thebes, Greece ca. 700 - 680 BC
•    This is considered one of the master works of the early 7th century.
•     It is unsure whether statue is of Apollo, or of the creator of the statue.  If the broken hand had carried a bow, we would certainly know the depiction to be of Apollo.
•    This figure represents the increasing interest in depicting human anatomy.  Notable is the abdomen area, where the muscles are beginning to find definition.
The Orientalizing Period
Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes
Rhodes, Greece ca. 625 - 600 BC
•    This demonstrates the Greek awareness of Eastern artworks and the influence of that newly discovered work on the art of the Greeks.
•     This is a two handled storage jar called an amphora. The amphora was the  most important vessel used in ancient Greece.
•     Eastern monsters such as the spinx and the siren (part bird, part woman) are displayed on the amphora’s neck.
•     This demonstrates black-figure painting , created by the Corinthians, in which the artist first puts down the black silhouettes on the clay surface , as in the Geometric times, but then used a sharp, pointed instrument to incise linear details within the forms, usually adding highlights in purplish red or white over the black figures before firing the vessel.  
The Athenians later copied this technique.
The Orientalizing Period
Lady of Auxerre,  statue of a goddess or kore
 Greece ca. 650 - 625 BC
•    This is an example of a kore figure. (plural korai)
•     It is still uncertain whether this figure was meant to represent a mortal or a deity.
•      The hand across the chest is thought to be an indication of prayer, referencing that this is a probably a kore.
•      The image has a monumental quality, but it is only about 2 feet tall (still larger that the bronze statuettes of the era)
•    The style of this work is referred to as Daedalic, after the legendary artist Daedalus, whose name means “the skillful one”.    Greeks have attributed to him almost all of the great achievements in early sculpture and architecture before the names of those artist were recorded.
The Archaic Period
 Greece ca. 600 BC
Male figures called kouros  meaning “youth” were always depicted nude.
This particular kouros figure was said to have a funerary purpose, as it once stood over a grave in the countryside near Athens.
•     Statues such as this replaced the Geometric vases as the preferred form of grave marking.
•    Despite the similarity with the Egyptian prototype for figurative sculpture, these kouros figures differ in many significant ways…  
How are Mentuemhet and the Kouros different?
The Greek statues are liberated from the original stone block, where the Egyptian statues were not.  This demonstrates the Greek idea of including motion rather than stability.
The kouroi are nude and absent of any attributes
The proportions of the body are slightly less idealized than those from Egypt.
The Archaic Period
Calf Bearer (Moschophoros)
 Athens, Greece ca. 560 BC
The Archaic Period
Calf Bearer (Moschophoros)
 Athens, Greece ca. 560 BC
•    This work was found in the acropolis in fragments.
•      The sculpture contains an inscription in the base that dedicates the creation of the statue to a man named Rhonbos, of whom many think the calf bearer is a portrait.
•     Significant is the beard and cloak,  which clearly removes this figure from the idea of male youth that the kouros figures contained.
 From this time on, Archaic sculpures seem to smile- even in inappropriate contexts
•    The calf’s legs join with the hands of the figure to form an “X” that unites the two both physically and formally.
•    “Archaic smile” indicates life.
The Archaic Period
 Anavysos, Greece ca. 530 BC
•    Around 530 BC a man named Kroisos died a hero’s death in battle.  His grave was marked by this figure.
•      The inscription at the base of this statue read:  “stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos, whom raging Ares destroyed one day as he fought in the foremost ranks”
•      The “archaic smile” is present, as is the Egyptian stance, but the naturalism of the body far exceeds any figurative sculpture that preceded it.
•      Head is no longer too large for the body, the cheeks are full and rounded, the abdomen is well developed and natural, the hair is less stiff , and rounded hips have replace the V-shaped ridges of the New York kouros.
•    Some of the original paint has survived, giving the sculpture an even more naturalistic appearance.
•    The flesh was left the natural color of the stone, but the hair, lips, and eyes were painted in encaustic (pigment mixed with hot wax)
The Archaic Period
•    Titled Peplos Kore because of the peplos that the figure is wearing.  ( a simple, long, woolen belted garment that gives the female figure a columnar appearance.
•      This sculpture was damaged during the sack of the Acropolis in 480 BC by the Persians.
•      This sculpture once stood as a votive offering in Athena’s sanctuary.
Peplos Kore
 Athens, Greece ca. 530 BC
•    Titled Peplos Kore because of the peplos that the figure is wearing.  ( a simple, long, woolen belted garment that gives the female figure a columnar appearance.
•      This sculpture was damaged during the sack of the Acropolis in 480 BC by the Persians.
•      This sculpture once stood as a votive offering in Athena’s sanctuary.
•    The Archaic Period
Kore, from the acropolis
 Athens, Greece ca. 510 BC
•    The peplos is now replaced by the Ionian chiton, worn in conjunction with the heavier himation- the garment of choice for fashionable women.  
•      The folds of the clothing give the sculpture a much more lifelike appearance than that of the peplos kore.
•      The left arm of the figure, unfortunately broken off, had once grasped part of the chiton to lift it off the ground before taking a step.  This further adds to the naturalism and notion of movement.

The Archaic Period
Temple of Hera I
 Paestum, Italy ca. 550 BC
•    The Greek temple was the house of the God or Goddess, not of his or her followers.   These temples were not places of worship, but rather places for the worshipped.  
•     Most of the temples would contain figural sculpture that would embellish the God’s shrine as well as to tell something about the deity symbolized within.
•    This temple is a prime example of early Greek efforts at Doric temple design
•    . The entire area of the temple is 80 ft by 170 feet.
•      Most of the frieze, pediment, and all of the roof , have vanished.
•    The columns contained pronounced  entasis  or swelling of the column at the middle.
•      This bulky and less elegant architecture is result from the lacking architectural knowledge of the Archaic Greeks
The Archaic Period
West  pediment from the Temple of Artemis
 Corfu, Greece ca. 600 - 580 BC
•    Corfu is an island off the western coast of Greece and was an important stop on the trade route between the mainland and the Greek Settlements in Italy.
•      This temple was lavishly embellished with sculpture including metopes that were decorated with relief sculptures and both pediments were filled with huge sculptures (nine feet high).  
•     The west pediment (seen here) is the more preserved of the two.
•     The gorgon, demon woman with bird wings, Medusa  fills the center of the pediment.  In mythology, anyone gazing at Medusa would be turned into stone.
The Archaic Period
West  pediment from the Temple of Artemis
 Corfu, Greece ca. 600 - 580 BC
•    Medusa assumes the Archaic bent-leg, bent-arm, pin wheel position pose that indicates running or ,in this case, flying.
The Archaic Period
Gigantomachy, detail from the north frieze of the Siphnian  Treasury
Delphi, Greece ca. 530  BC
•      Much more detailed version of this story than the one on the pediment at Corfu.
•      Depicts Artemis and Apollo chasing a giant while the lion pulling a goddess’s chariot attacks another giant.
•      This was originally embellished with color that has worn away over time.
•    The Archaic Period
François Vase,
 Chiusi, Italy ca. 570  BC
Attic black-figure volute crater Created by Kleitas and Ergotimos
  Much of the depictions on the vase are of Achilles, the great hero from Homer’s Illiad.  
  Also present is the centauromacy, or battle of the centaurs and the Lapiths (a northern Greek tribe).
   Figures are depicted in profile with frontal eyes and frontal torsos.
The Archaic Period
Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game.
 Vulci, Italy ca. 540 -530  BC
Detail from an Athenian black-figure amphora created by Exekias
(painter and potter)
   Exekias was considered by the Greeks to have been a Master of black figure painting.
    No series of horizontal bands- instead a simple large band that contains the didactic image.
 The earliest of these types of vase paintings were called bilingual due to their depiction
of the same subject on both sides of the vase.  One in red-figure, and the other in black-figure.
  The “calm before the storm”, a concept that is repeated throughout the history of art.
The intricacy of the decoration in the cloaks of these two heroes is unmatched by any other black-figure painter
The composition of the figures is emulative of the shape of the amphora.
The Archaic Period
Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game.
 Vulci, Italy ca. 540 -530  BC
Euthymides, Three revelers
 Vulci, Italy ca. 510  BC
•    Detail from an Attic red-figure amphora by Euthimides .
•     Euthimides was a contemporary and rival of Eurphonious.
•       This subject matter is appropriate for the vessel that it is decorating.  This wine storage jar  contains imagery of drunkenness.
•      The artist has rejected the conventional frontal and profile composite views.
•    Uses foreshortened three quarter views of his subjects.
•      His signature reads:  “Euthymides painted me as never Euphronious could  do”.   A bold statement.
The Archaic Period
Onesimos,  Girl preparing to bathe
 Chiusi, Italy ca. 490  BC
•    A detail from a kylix (a drinking cup).
•      Demonstrates an interest in foreshortening, as the girls torso and breasts are displayed in a three quarter view.  
•      Also notable is the genre scene depicted.  This does not depict any Gods or heros, but rather a everyday woman doing an everyday activity
  Images such as this would only be displayed privately and would never be the subject of public art.

ARTHST1 - Handout 5

•    Greek Civilization is known through 3 sources:
    a.  Monuments themselves,
    b.  Roman copies
    c.  Literary sources- (these often conflict)
•    Greek civilization started out as tribal groups - the Dorians, who settled mostly on the mainland, and the Ionians who inhabited the Aegean islands and Asia Minor
•    Greeks remained divided into small city-states (the polis) but united themselves for all-Greek festivals.  Rivalry between states stimulated the growth of ideas
Term used to describe the Bronze Age that occurred in the land in and around the Aegean Sea.
Three basic periods:
CYCLADIC  (Cyclades Islands)  3000-1600 BCE
MINOAN (Crete) 3000-1400 BCE
MYCENEAN (Mainland Greece)  1400-1100 BCE
Cycladic Art
Most examples are from the NEOLITHIC period and are usually female
Cycladic Islands rich in metal ores and marble (Parian Marble from Paros considered some of the best in the world)
Very abstracted, geometric figures found in stone burial chambers
Minoan Art
Artwork found on the island of CRETE – called Minoan because of the legend of King Minos
Very rich civilization with many references to bulls and ocean themes
PALACE OF KNOSSOS – Huge palace about 6 acres in size!  1st excavated by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900
Amphora – two handled vase used to carry wine, oil, olives, etc.
Amphi (“on both sides”) +
phoreus (“carrier”)
Aerial View of Knossos
Artist rendering of the Palace of Knossos
Pictures taken from the Palace of Knossos – Note the repeated bull and Marine Themes…
Octopus Vase  ca. 1500 BCE
Marine Style - Minoan
Snake Goddess – found at Palace of Knossos
ca. 1600 BCE  1’ 1-1/2” high
Minoan Female Figurines
The Discovery of Akrotiri….
(Late Cycladic, possibly Early Minoan)
Akrotiri is located on the island of Thera. This civilization was buried in volcanic pumice and kept many of its items intact.
Mycenaean Period
The people of Mycenae lived richly in large citadels that had to be built with strong walls to prevent attacks, such as:
The Treasury of Atreus
The Citadel of Tiryns
The Citadel of Mycenae
Treasury of Atreus
Once believed to be the location of Royal storage, it was actually built as a tomb.  Until the creation of the Roman Pantheon, it was the largest domed interior ever.
Treasury of Atreus
Treasury of Atreus
Citadel of Tiryns

Lion Gate of Mycenae
Excavated by German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann in 1876, who used the writings of Homer to find the ruins
Lion Gate of Mycenae
Guardian-like lions that guarded the entrance to the Citadel… Heads are now gone.
Palace of Knossos
(Artist’s Rendering)
Citadel of Mycenae
(Artist’s Rendering)
Mycenaeans = “Rich In Gold”
Thanks to tombs such as “Grave Circle A”, graves excavated in Mycenae find many  kings and their families buried with gold, much like the Egyptians…
Woman with jewelry, Men with weapons and golden cups.
Grave Circle A
Excavation started by Heinrich Schliemann in 1877

ARTHST1 - Handout 4

Key Concepts
The Egyptian fascination with the afterlife is the focus of much of the art of this region and time period. Significant in this period is the use of art in the service of religion.
The concepts of patronage and symbolism in ancient Egyptian art should be compared with examples from the Near East.
Study the importance of the afterlife in Egyptian mythology can be useful in helping to see the pervasiveness of this concept. The story of Osiris is a good example. The annual flooding of the Nile serves as a loaded metaphor for this cycle of death and rebirth.
Three major periods of Egyptian history:
Pre-Dynastic Period 4350-3150 BCE
Early Dynastic Period 3150-2670 BCE
Old Kingdom 2670-2150 BCE
Middle Kingdom 2150-1800 BCE
New Kingdom 1550-1070 BCE (includes Amarna period-1370-1350 BCE)
The Rosetta Stone
In 1799, Napoleon took a small troop of scholars, linguists and artists on a military expedition of Egypt and found the Rosetta Stone (named for the Rosetta coast of the Mediterranean where it was discovered)
Composed of three languages: Classical Greek (which they knew how to read), Demotic (Late Egyptian) and Formal Egyptian Hieroglyphic.
This stone became the key to unlocking the meanings behind Egyptian hieroglyphics!
The Predynastic period in Egyptian art refers to the earliest or Prehistoric art of Egypt.
This particular image seems to be a funerary scene depicting people, animals and boats.
These stick-like figures are very similar to those of the Neolithic paintings from Çatal Hüyük.
Boats- symbolize the journey down the river of life and death
People, boats, and animals. (detail of a watercolor copy of a wall painting
From Tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis,  Egypt, Predynastic  3500-3200 BC
The lower center of this image depicts a heraldic grouping of two animals flanking a human figure.  The image suggests an influence of Mesopotamian art.  It is interesting to note that Mesopotamian culture could have made its way over a thousand miles up the Nile
The Palette of King Narmer
Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Early Dynastic 3000-2920 BC
Predynastic Egypt was divided geographically and politically into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt
Upper Egypt was the southern, upstream part of the Nile Valley.  It was dry, rocky, and culturally rustic.
Lower Egypt in the Northern part of the Nile Valley was opulent, urban, and populated.
The Palette of King Narmer is one of the earliest  historical artworks preserved.
It was, at one time, regarded as commemorating the foundation of the first of Egypt’s thirty-one dynasties around 2920 BC (the last ended in 332 BC)
This image records the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt into the “Kingdom of Two Lands” at the very end of the Predynastic period.
Egyptians prepared eye makeup on tablets such as this for protecting their eyes against irritation  and the sun’s glare. This palette is not only important because of its historical content, but it also serves as a blueprint of the formula for figure representation that characterized Egyptian art for three thousand years.
The back of the palette depicts the king wearing the bowling-pin-shaped crown of Upper Egypt accompanied by an official who carries his sandals.  The king is in the process of slaying his enemy and is significant in the pictorial formula for signifying the inevitable triumph of the Egyptian god-kings.
The falcon is a symbol of Horus, the kings protector.
Below the ground-line of the king are two of his fallen enemies.
Above the king are the two heads of Hathor  a goddess of favorable dispose to Narmer and shown as the cow with a woman’s face.  Between these two faces is the hieroglyph of Narmer’s name with a frame representing the Royal Palace.
Used to hold the eye makeup
The front of the palette  depicts the king wearing the red cobra crown of Lower Egypt.  The bodies of the dead are seen from above, as each body is depicted with it’s head severed and neatly placed between its legs. 
Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser,  Saqqara Egypt  Dynasty III
Each person must provide for the happiness of his afterlife- would reproduce daily life in tombs for their Ka (spirit) to enjoy- blurring of line between life and death
Tomb was like afterlife insurance
3000 BC -the start of the old kingdom
Pharaoh was supreme ruler and a god- basis of all civilization and of artwork
Knowledge of civilization rest solely in tombs
Imhotep: First recognized artist or architect in history
Built on a mastaba, burial chamber deep underground with a shaft linking it to the pyramid, meant to serve as a great monument
Part of a huge funerary district with temples and other buildings, scenes of religious celebration before and after death
Columnar entrance corridor to the mortuary  precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt
Egyptian architecture began with mud bricks, wood, reeds- Imhotep (first artist whose name was part of recorded history) used cut stone masonry
Style was similar to less enduring material - columns are always engaged rather than free-standing
Now columns had an expressive purpose rather than just functional
Tapering fluted columns were designed for harmony and elegance, not just to hold things up
Images of Papyrus columns are associated  with lower Egypt
Façade of the North Palace of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt Dynasty III    Ca. 2630-2611
This is an example of an
engaged column
Notice that they are less functional
than they are decorative.
Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV
Burial Chamber is in the center of the pyramid rather than underneath
Originally covered in smooth stone that would be reflective in the sun.  (Almost blinding to the eyes.)
Funerary district is much more organized than Djoser- surrounded by mastabas and smaller pyramids
Fourth Dynasty pharaohs considered themselves to be the sons of the sun God Re and his incarnation  on earth.
Egyptians always buried their dead on the west side of the Nile, where the sun sets.
The largest of the pyramids is about 450 feet tall and has an area of almost 13 acres.  It contains almost 2.3 million blocks of stone, each weighing about 1.5 tons.
The Great Pyramid at Gizeh is the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world
Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt
Tomb Raiders tunnels are marked in this schematic drawing by the dotted lines.
The thieves were unable to locate the carefully sealed and hidden entrance, so they started their tunneling about 40 feet above the base and worked their way into the structure until they found the ascending corridor.
Many of the royal tombs were plundered almost immediately after the funeral ceremonies had ended.
The immense size of these pyramids was an invitation to looting.
Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV     ca. 2520-2494 bc 
The Sphinx
65 feet tall
The Sphinx commemorated the pharaoh and served as an immovable, eternal silent guardian of his tomb.
This guardian stood watch at the entrances to the palaces of their kings.  It gives visitors coming from the east the illusion that it rests on a great pedestal.
The face of the Sphinx is thought to be an image of the pharaoh Khafre.
Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV     ca. 2520-2494 bc
Khafre, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV      Ca 2520-2495 bc
Made of carved of extremely hard stone called diorite which would have been brought seven hundred miles down the Nile from royal quarries in the south
This sculpture shows  the enthroned king with the falcon of the god Horus
Demonstrates the artist’s cubic view of the human figure- created by drawing the front and side view of the figure on the block of stone and then working inward until the views met
The figure is immobile and firm- the body is impersonal but the face has some individual traits
Sculptures such as this would serve as home for the Ka to exist should the mummies be destroyed.
The intertwined lotus and papyrus plants between the legs of Khafre’s throne are thought to be symbolic of the united Egypt.
The Falcon god Horus extends his protective wings to shelter Kafre’s head.
Khafre wears the royal fake beard fastened to his chin and wears the royal linen nemes ( the royal headdress worn by the pharaoh containing the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front.)
His proportions are idealized and are appropriate for representing majesty.
This sculpture is indicative of the block statue standard of Egyptian sculpture.
Menkaure and Khamerernebty, Gizeh, Egypt
Dynasty IV,  ca 2490-2472 bc
Standing (common pose), both have left foot forward, yet they are not moving forward-
Figures are sculpted in the same height, provide a comparison of male and female beauty.
The stone from which they were created still is still visible, maintaining the block form. 
These figures were meant to house the ka .
This was the stereotypical pose that symbolized marriage.  Notice how the figures are idealized and emotionless.  The artists depiction of these two people is indicative of the formula for depicting royalty in Egyptian Art.
Seated Scribe, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty IV
Ca 2450-2350 bc
The scribe pose- cross-legged on the ground-
The Scribe is a high court official- most scribes were sons of pharaohs.  (Alert expression in face, individualized torso- flabby and middle-aged)
Old kingdom also invented the portrait bust- whether it was an abbreviated statue or had some greater significance is unknown
Notice the realism depicted in this sculpture, when compared to that of the Pharaohs. His depiction in this manner is a result of his lower hierarchy in Egyptian society than that of a Pharaoh.
Young scribes were sent to a place known as the House of Life where they would learn to read and write.  Much of there time was spent copying letters, accounts, and stories of the gods on pieces of pottery called ostraka.
It has been said that it could take up to 10 years for a scribe to learn the language of hieroglyphics that contained nearly 700 characters.
Ka-Aper, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V   Ca 2450-2350 bc
Here Ka-Aper assumes the traditional pose of an official, but notice the attention to detail in the face.  The artists has imbedded rock crystal into the eyes of the sculpture for added life.
This image is an example of combining the high  status pose with specific portraiture information that would be associated with a person of lower status than the Pharaoh.
The fifth Dynasty in Egypt produced many wooden statues such as this one with an increased realism and relaxed formality.
This is only the wooden core for the statue which was, at one time,  covered with painted plaster.
The walking stick and baton (missing from his right hand) were symbolic of his rank as an official. 
Old Kingdom
Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, Saqarra, Egypt
Dynasty V, ca 2450-2350 bc
Tomb paintings (non-royal)- landscapes were popular
(background is very active)
Ti is much larger than others  (shows importance)
Ti isn’t engaging in activity- he’s watching- (shows his importance in his society)
Action is going on after death- body does not respond, but the spirit appreciates the activity
Scenes depicted in funerary tombs were of everyday life.  They were created as an insurance that the ka of the dead will continue in the afterlife as it did in life on earth.
The success of the hunt in Ancient Egypt was a metaphor for the triumph over the forces of evil.
Interior hall of the rock-cut tombs of Amenemhet
Beni Hasan, Egypt,  Dynasty XII, ca 1950-1900 bc
About 2150 B.C., the Egyptians challenged the pharaoh’s power, and for more than a century the land was in a state of civil unrest and near anarchy.
In 2040 B. C. the pharaoh of Upper Egypt, Mentuhotep I, managed to unite Egypt again under the rule of a single king and established the so-called Middle Kingdom
(Dynasties XI - XIV)
Rock-cut tombs of the Middle Kingdom largely replaced the Old Kingdom mastabas and pyramids.
The columns in this tomb serve no supportive function.
Notice the fluting on the columns.  It is clear that the columns are not supporting the ceiling of the tomb, as many of the columns were broken, yet still attached to the ceiling in some cases.
Queen Hatshepsut’s Funerary Temple
Senmut, Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut
Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, Dynasty XVII
Built 1480 BC  (New Kingdom) against rocky cliffs, dedicated to Amun.
linked by ramps and colonnades to a small chamber deep in the rock-
This is a great example of architecture within natural setting-
ramps echo shape of cliffs and the  horizontal rhythm of light and dark in the columns mimics that of the cliffs above.
Queen Hatshepsut became the Pharoah when her husband Thutmose II had died.  The heir to the throne was to be given to his twelve year old son, but he was too young to rule.  Hatshepsut then assumed the role of King, and became the first great female monarch whose name was recorded. 
Many of the portraits of Hatshepsut were destroyed at the order of Thutmose III (the son too young to rule), as he was resentful of her declaration of herself as pharaoh.
Hatshepsut with offering jars,
Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, ca 1473- 1458
This statue has been carefully reassembled after its destruction.  Most of the statues of Hatshepsut had to be reassembled due to their destruction , as ordered by Thutmose III.  Thutmose III was the son of Hatshepsut’s husband (from a minor wife) and had to share the throne at one point with Hatshepsut.
The female Pharaoh is seen here in a ritual  that honors the sun god. A pharaoh could only be seen kneeling before a God – but never anyone else.
Her depiction as pharaoh is clear, as she is seen wearing the royal male nemes headdress and the pharaoh’s ceremonial beard.  The uraeus cobra that once adorned the front of the headdress was hacked off by the agents of Thutmose III.
The figure is represented as anatomically male, but other statues have been found that represent her with woman’s breasts.
Seated Queen Hatshepsut
Early 18th Dynasty, joint reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III (1479-1458 B.C.)
Western Thebes, Deir el-Bahri
Limestone, painted
New Kingdom:  Egypt at its height
Ramses was Egypt’s last great warrior pharaoh and ruled for  two thirds of a century.
This monument was moved in 1968 to protect it from submersion. 
Ramses was very proud of his accomplishments and proclaimed his greatness by placing four colossal images of himself on the temple façade.
Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty 19 Ca 1290-1224 BC
Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Egypt, Dynasty XIX
Ca 1290-1224 bc
Interior of the Temple of Ramses, Aubu Simbel,
Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca 1290-1224 bc
These atlantids were 32 feet tall and were carved from the cliff.  They contain no load-bearing function (similar to those of Beni Hasan).
The tomb is decorated with paintings and reliefs depicting Ramses and his royal sons with the major deities of Egypt.—-Osiris, Isis, Hathor, Horus, and Thoth decorate the tomb walls.
This tomb was robbed within a half century after its construction.  The royal burials have not been found.
This temple is mainly the product of the Eithteenth Dynasty pharaohs, but some of the  Nineteenth Dynasty pharaohs contributed to it as well.
Contributers include:  Thutmose I and II, Hatshepsut, and Ramses II.
This temple is a great example of the hypostyle hall. ( One roof supported by many columns)
Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX
Ca 1290-1224 bc
The central section of the roof is raised.  This architectural feature is called a clerestory.  The function of this was to allow light to filter into the interior.  
The columns were decorated with a series of sunken relief sculpture. 
Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca 237-47 bc
The façade of this temple depicts Horus and Hathor witnessing an oversized King Ptolemy XIII striking down undesired enemies.
The architecture of this temple is still rooted in the basic scheme that architects had worked out more than a thousand years before.
This demonstrates the traditional nature of Egyptian art and architecture.
This type of temple with a simple massive gateway or pylon with sloping walls is known as a pylon temple
Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun,
Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca 1400-1350 bc
Nebamun’s official title in Egypt was  “scribe and counter of grain”
Here he is shown standing in his boat, hunting birds in a papyrus swamp. 
Notice the hierarchy of scale and how the artist emphasized the important character.
This was created in the tomb to ensure the recreational enjoyment in the afterlife.
Notice the contrast between this work and that of the relief sculpture in the tomb of Ti. ( how are their poses different, and how does it speak to their importance)
The technique used in the creation of this painting is known as
 Fresco Secco.  The artists would let the plaster dry prior to painting on it.  This contrasts the true fresco technique on wet plaster.
Fowling Scene, from the tomb of Nebamun.
Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty 18 ca 1400-1350 BCE. Fresco on Dried Plaster.
Ti on a Hippo Hunt
(Old Kingdom)
       Ti was an official in the 5th Dynasty 
       Painted limestone relief
      The deceased is looking on, not participating – sign of high-status
Fowling Scene (New Kingdom)
      Nebamun was a scribe and counter of grain
       Painted in a Fresco Secca (where the plaster is applied and dried first)
      The deceased is actually participating, not just looking on
Akhenaton, From the temple of Amen-Re,
Karnak, Egypt, Dyanasty XVIII 1353-1335 BC
New Kingdom
    Akhenaton is infamous for his religious revolution in Egypt during the eighteenth Dynasty.
    The revolution in religion gave way to an artistic revolution in which the figures became elongated and androgynous in their appearance.
    The pharaoh Amenhotep IV abandonded the worship of most of the Egyptian Gods  in favor of the God Aton
     ( the god of the Sun).  In honor of the new monotheistic religion, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton.
    He then moved the capital city of Egypt down the Nile River to the city of Thebes, now called Tell el-Amarna, where he built his own city and  shrines.
    Bust of Ahkenaton
Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty 18
1353-1335 BCE
White Limestone. 21 inches tall.
Akhenaton and Nefertiti, From the tmeple of Amen-Re,
Karnak, Egypt, Dyanasty XVIII 1353-1335 BC
Akhenaton’s god was unlike any other Egyptian God in that it was not depicted by animal or human form.  Instead, Aton was depicted only as a sun disk emitting live-giving rays.
Stylistic Changes during the Amarna Period included:
Effeminate body with curving contours
Long full- lipped face, heavy- lidded eyes, and a dreamy expression.
The body of Akhenaton is oddly misshapen with weak arms, a narrow waist, protruding belly, wide hips, and fatty thighs.
Two Seated Princesses
Bas Relief (low-relief)
Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty 18
1353-1335 BCE
White Limestone. 9” x 9”
Nefertiti, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII
Nefertiti, the queen of Akhenaton, exhibits the features  indicative of the Amarna Style. The delicate curving contours demonstrate a clear stylistic difference from that of the traditional Egyptian depiction of royalty.
Nefertiti’s name means “The Beautiful One is Here”.
The subject’s likeness has been adjusted to the new standard of spiritual beauty.
Features to be noted in this piece are the serpentine narrow neck that supports the heavy weight of the royal crown.
Tiye,  Gurob, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII ca 1353-1335 bc
The depiction of age is present here which is a new development in the style of art.  Depictions of royalty did not illustrate the age of the subject prior to the Amarna period. This image clearly demonstrates the relaxation of the artistic rules.
Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen
Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC
Tutankhamen inherited the throne when he was only eight years old.  The high officials associated with the young pharaoh made many of the decisions for the young ruler.
The first order of business for Tutankhamen was to reestablish the cult and priesthood of Amen and restore  the temples and inscriptions of his name.
Once Akhenaton’s religious revolution was undone, artist returned to the old conservative manner.
Tutankhamen only ruled  for only 10 years, and died when he was 18 years old.  His death and funeral were sudden, and many scholars believe that it was no accident. 
The evidence of his murder lies in bone fragments found in his skull, and the lacking attention to detail in his burial tomb.  The lacking detail suggests a hurried burial, which is a suspicious considering the status of Tutankhaman.
Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen
Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC
Scientific studies of the remains of Tutankhamen  have lead researchers to believe that he had two rare spinal cord diseases.  His spinal cord had a slight curve to it and the vertebrate were non-flexible where they met his skull. 
The result of these rare diseases caused the pharaoh to  need  a walking stick as well as restricted the turning of his head.
Many depictions of the pharaoh illustrate him using a cane with his feet twisted beneath his body.
Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer
 Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty 19 1290-1280 BC
Hu-Nefer was the royal scribe to the pharaoh Seti I.
This tomb painting depicts the jackal-headed god, Anubis, leading Hu-Nefer down the hall of judgment.  His soul has been favorably weighed and he is being brought by Horus to the presence of the green-faced Osiris.
This formula for imagery in Hu-Nefer’s tomb demonstrates a return to the Old Kingdom funerary illustrations.
Mentuemhet, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI
650 BC
The Late Period in Egyptian art demonstrates a return to the conservative.  Pharaohs are again depicted as they were during the Old Kingdom, idealized and emotionless.
Only the double wig, characteristic of the New Kingdom, and the realism of the head, with its rough and almost brutal characterization, differentiate the work from that of an earlier age.
Conservatism was Egypt’s character trait, perhaps the principal trait.  The ancient Egyptian’s resistance to significant change for almost three thousand years is one of the marvels of the history of art

ARTHST1 - Handout 3


Stele of NaramSin
c. 2300-2200 BCE
6 ½ ft. tall  Sandstone
Originally this stele was erected in the town of Sippar, centre of the cult of the Sun god, to the north of Babylon. lt illustrates the victory over the Lullabis, mountain people of western lran by Naram-Sin, who claimed to be the universal monarch and was deified during his lifetime. He had himself depicted climbing the mountain at the head of his troops. His helmet bears the horns emblematic of divine power. Although it is worn, his face is expressive of the ideal human conqueror, a convention imposed on artists by the monarchy. The king tramples on the bodies of his enemies at the foot of a peak; above it the solar disk figures several times, and the king pays homage to it for his victory.
Gudea of Lagash
2141-2122 B.C.; Mesopotamian, Neo-Sumerian period; 41 cm (16 1/8 in.);

Of all the rulers of ancient Mesopotamia, Gudea, ensi (governor) of Lagash, emerges the most clearly across the millennia due to the survival of many of his religious texts and statues. He ruled his city-state in southeast Iraq for twenty years, bringing peace and prosperity at a time when the Guti, tribesmen from the northeastern mountains, occupied the land. His inscriptions describe vast building programs of temples for his gods.

This statuette depicts the governor in worship before his gods wearing the persian-lamb fur cap of the ensi and a shawl-like fringed robe with tassles. The serene, heavily lidded eyes and calm pose create a powerful portrait of this pious ruler.

A Sumerian cuneiform inscription on the back describes the building of a temple to the goddess Geshtinanna, consort of Gudea’s personal god, and the making of this statue for her.
The inscription extends over part of the right shoulder and onto the left side of the robe. The upper part, the cartouche, gives the name of the ruler, while the lower, main text speaks of the reasons for the creation of this particular statue. The cartouche translates as follows:
Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, the man who built the temple of Ningishzida and the temple of Geshtinanna.
Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, built to Geshtinanna, the queen a-azi-mu-a, the beloved wife of Ningishzida, his queen, her temple in Girsu. He created for her [this] statue. “She granted the prayer,” he gave it a name for her and brought it into her temple.
Stele of Hammurabi
c. 1780 BCE
The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Hammurabi, with the help of his impressive Babylonian army, conquered his rivals and established a unified Mesopotamia. He proved to be as great an administrator as he was a general.
The code of Hammurabi contained 282 laws, written by scribes on 12 tablets. Unlike earlier laws, it was written in Akkadian, the daily language of Babylon, and could therefore be read by any literate person in the city.
Human-headed Winged Bull
 Reign of Sargon II, 721-705 BCE

This colossal sculpture was one of a pair that guarded the entrance to the throne room of King Sargon II. A protective spirit known as a “lamassu”, it is shown as a composite being with the head of a human, the body and ears of a bull, and the wings of a bird. When viewed from the side, the creature appears to be walking; when viewed from the front, to be standing still. Thus it is actually represented with five, rather than four, legs.
Ishtar Gate
575 BCE
The Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BC by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city. Dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, the Gate was constructed of blue glazed tiles with alternating rows of bas-relief dragons and bulls.
Imperial Persepolis (Persian  -  now Iran)

ARTHST1 - Handout 2

    Mesopotamian Art
    Ancient Near East
    The Five Primary chronological and cultural grouping:
    18th through 20th CENTURY
    The Ancient World
Early Neolithic Communities
    Most examples are small female figures

    Seated Goddess, Catal Huyuk, c5900 BCE
    Mesopotamian Art
        Mesopotamia (Greek, “between the rivers”), one of the earliest centers of urban civilization, in the area of modern Iraq and eastern Syria between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
        As the Tigris and Euphrates flow south out of Turkey, they are 400 km (250 mi) apart; the Euphrates runs south and east for 1,300 km (800 mi) and the Tigris flows south for 885 km (550 mi) before they join, reaching the Persian Gulf as the Shatt al Arab. The river valleys and plains of Mesopotamia are open to attack from the rivers, the northern and eastern hills, and the Arabian Desert and Syrian steppe to the west. Mesopotamia’s richness always attracted its poorer neighbors, and its history is a pattern of infiltration and invasion. Rainfall is sparse in most of the region, but when irrigated by canals the fertile soil yields heavy crops. In the south, date palms grow, supplying rich food, useful fiber, wood, and fodder. Both rivers have fish, and the southern marshes contain wildfowl.
    The Sumerians:
The Sumerian Art
    Cuneiform (Latin cuneus, “wedge”), term applied to a mode of writing utilizing wedge-shaped strokes, inscribed mainly on clay but also on stone, metals, wax, and other materials. This technique was used by the ancient people of Western Asia. The earliest texts in cuneiform script were made in about 3000 bc, having antedated the use of alphabets by some 1500 years. The latest cuneiform inscriptions date from the 1st century ad. Cuneiform writing, which originated in southern Mesopotamia, was invented probably by the Sumerians, who used it to inscribe the Sumerian language; it was subsequently adapted for writing the Akkadian language, of which Babylonian and Assyrian are dialects. Because Akkadian, the language of later inhabitants of Sumer, became the language of international communication it was studied in schools throughout the ancient Middle East.
    The first historical epoch of Sumerian dominance lasted from about 3000 bc until about 2340 bc. While earlier architectural traditions continued, a new type of building was introduced, the temple oval, an enclosure with a central platform supporting a shrine. City-states centered at such cities as Ur, Umma, Lagash (modern Telloh), Kish, and Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) were headed by governors or kings who were not considered divine. Much of the art is commemorative; plaques, frequently depicting banquet scenes, celebrate victories or the completion of a temple.
    Noted Artifacts:
    Face of Woman,from Urak (fig.2-6), c3500-3000 BCE
    Statuettes, from Temple of Abu,
    Tell Asmar (fig.2-9), c2900-2600 BCE
    Bull Lyre, from tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur (fig.2-11), c2685 
    Standard of Ur, c2700 BCE
    Male statues stand or sit with hands clasped in an attitude of prayer. They are often naked above the waist and wear a woolen skirt curiously woven in a pattern that suggests overlapping petals .
    A toga-like garment sometimes covers one shoulder. Men generally wear long hair and a heavy beard, both often trimmed in corrugations and painted black. The eyes and eyebrows are emphasized with colored inlay. The female coiffure varies considerably but predominantly consists of a heavy coil arranged vertically from ear to ear and a chignon behind. A headdress of folded linen sometimes conceals the hair. Ritual nakedness is confined to priests.
    Enlarged eyes were found on many statues.

    Votive Statues, from the Temple of Abu, Tell Asmar,c.2500 BC
    At Lagash a strongly modeled head of stone (c.2500 BC) portrays a Sumerian man, clearly representing the structural type of these ancient people. Its large and widely spaced features set on a heavy round skull are revealed in bas-relief and inlay work of the period. Examples of the famous votive stone sculptures of Sumer discovered at Tell Asmar represent tall, long-haired, bearded figures with huge, staring eyes and long, pleated skirts, standing rigidly with hands folded above the waist. Some are portrayed kneeling.

    Most cities were simple in structure, the ziggurat was one of the world’s first great architectural structures.
    Sumerian Artifacts - British Museum
    Cylinder Seals:
    CYLINDER SEALS - Used as a means of stamping and identifying documents… Simply roll the seal out on clay and get the image.  These seals are just a couple of inches long.
    The Akkadians:
    Architecture
    One would indeed expect a similar change to be apparent in the character of contemporary architecture, and the fact that this is not so may be due to the paucity of excavated examples. It is known that the Sargonid dynasty had a hand in the reconstruction and extension of many Sumerian temples (for example, at Nippur) and that they built palaces with practical amenities (Tall al-Asmar) and powerful fortresses on their lines of imperial communication (Tell Brak, or Tall Birak at-Tahtani, Syria). The ruins of their buildings, however, are insufficient to suggest either changes in architectural style or structural innovations.  
    The Babylonians:
    They grew mainly vegetables and grains which were transported throughout the Middle East in exchange for raw materials to make manufactured goods and textiles. Due to their complex irrigation systems and forms of plow production, Babylon was one of the most fertile areas despite it’s location in the desert.
    Due to their lack of raw materials, the Babylonians had to develop new construction techniques for the construction of buildings. They developed sun dried clay bricks and this is what almost every building was made of. Because the clay could be found in a variety of colors or dyed to a variety of colors, the Babylonians had many very interesting and and very beautiful temples and public buildings. The Babylonians were not only skilled in their construction of buildings but also in the layout and position of their buildings in the cities. All cities constructed by the Babylonians were well built and aesthetically pleasing. The Babylonians were also very skilled at arts and crafts, leaving behind several well-crafted and beautiful artifacts.
    The Hanging Gardens
    Babylonian Art
 and Architecture
    The Code of Hammurabi is one of the earliest known examples of human laws being defined and written down in an orderly way. Little is known about Hammurabi himself; he ruled Babylon nearly four millennia ago, from roughly 1792-1750 B.C. The code has 282 entries covering all sorts of civil interactions, from inheritance to theft to slave ownership.
    The code’s best-known dictum is “If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out” — commonly quoted as “An eye for an eye.”
    The war annals of Sennacherib depict him as a ruthless destroyer, “the flame that consumes those who will not submit.” In his building inscriptions, however, he appears as “he who cares for the welfare of Assyria.” His greatest achievement was the rebuilding of Nineveh, the ancient capital. He strengthened the walls, cut new streets, and replanned the water system. Water was brought from the hills 50 miles away and carried over a valley on a stone aqueduct - one of the engineering feats of antiquity.
    The Ishtar Gate
    Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BC by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city.
    Dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the Gate was constructed of blue glazed tiles with alternating rows of bas-relief sirrush (dragons) and aurochs.
    Originally the gate, being part of the Walls of Babylon, was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the world until, in the 6th century AD, it was replaced with the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

    Reliefs at the Ishtar Gate
    These were produced for Nebuchadnezzar, contain 575 reliefs of lions, dragons, and bulls of superb workmanship (6th cent. B.C.; one lion exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum).
    This is one of the dragons from the gate.

    Lions and flowers decorated the processional street

    Photo of the remains from the 1930’s of the excavation site in Babylon

    Model of the main procession street (Aj-ibur-shapu) towards Ishtar Gate

    The Assyrians:
    Assyria did not become a powerful military state until the early 1st millennium BC, when Ashurnasirpal II’s conquests reasserted Assyria’s hegemony in the Near East, nor was it a true empire until the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III in the mid-8th century BC. The Assyrian empire has at times been described as the first military power in history.
    Ashur-nasir-pal II(centre) meets a high official after a successful battle.
    Tiglath-Pileser III: stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London).
    Assyrian Art:
    The characteristic Assyrian art form was the polychrome carved stone relief that decorated imperial monuments. The precisely delineated reliefs concern royal affairs, chiefly hunting and war making. Predominance is given to animal forms, particularly horses and lions, which are magnificently represented in great detail.
    Human figures are comparatively rigid and static but are also minutely detailed, as in triumphal scenes of sieges, battles, and individual combat.
    A winged lion with a woman’s head, grasped by a genie:
One of the more informal small-scale scenes incised, like
embroidery, on the clothes of many figures in Ashurnasirpal’s Palace at Nimrud, about 865 B.C.
    Guardian animals, usually lions and winged beasts with bearded human heads, were sculpted partially in the round for fortified royal gateways, an architectural form common throughout Asia Minor.
    Persian Art:
    Persia, now Iran, created the Persepolis. It was begun by Darius I (the Great) and finished by his son Xerxes.
    The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry.

    Pottery and ceramics
    Of the thousands of archeological sites and historic ruins of Iran, almost every single one can be found to have been filled, at some point, with earthenware of exceptional quality. Thousands of unique vessels alone were found in Sialk and Jiroft sites.

    Calligraphy
    Persian calligraphy has several styles. Seen here is a “shekasteh” manuscript dated 1894, by Seyed Ali Akbar Golestaneh .A follower of the style of Darvish, his contemporaries were Mirza Hasan Isfahani ,Mirza Kuchek Isfahani and Mohammad Ali Shirazi. After his death, the Shekasteh style fell into stagnation until it was revived again later on in the 1970s.
    Metalworks (Qalam-zani)
    Khatam-kari
    Many objects can be decorated in this fashion, such as: jewelery/decorative boxes, chessboards, cadres, pipes, desks, frames or some musical instruments. Khatam can be used on Persian miniature, realizing true work of art.
    Relief and sculpture
    Relief carving has a history dating back thousands of years. Elamite reliefs are still to be found in Iran with Persepolis being a mecca of relief creations of antiquity.
    Galesh
    A Galesh is a traditional footwear of Iran.
    Unlike most galosh, the “Galesh” are always handwoven and with specific fabrics.
    It is what people in Persia used to wear before the proliferation of the modern shoe, especially in the provinces of northern Iran.
    Galesh are still made today, but under the guise of handicrafts and cultural produce.

    Iranian Termeh
    Termeh is a handwoven cloth of Iran, mostly nowadays the Yazd province is the main center of producing it.

ARTHST1 - Handout 1

Introduction to the Earliest cultures AND ARTS
Stone Age Culture and Arts
The Paleolithic Era
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic Age, Era, or Period, or Old Stone Age, is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools, and covers roughly 99% of human history. It extends from the introduction of stone tools by hominids such as Homo habilis million years ago, to the introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene around 10 000 BC.
The Archaic Period, also called the Pleistocene Period, was characterized the appearance of the first homonids (early human).
Evidence of early flake tools marked this era, and the cave cultures arose. The early people lived a life based on hunting, foraging and gathering of food.
Several archeological sites revealed the use of fire at about 5000 BC. And evidences of early horticulture appeared.
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which humans widely used stone for toolmaking. This was theorized as part of the great migrations of humans and animals to the different areas of the world through the existence of land bridges.
It is believed that this period began somewhere around 2.5 million years ago with the first hominid tool makers in Africa, most likely Australopithecus garhi. The Stone Age  was created to describe the archaeological cultures of Europe, and that it is inconvenient to use it in relation to regions such as some parts of the Americas and Oceania, where farmers or hunter-gatherers used stone for tools until European colonisation began.
The Development of Tools during the Stone Age:
The First Stone Age (10,000 – 8,000) is characterized by the use of unpolished, roughly made and generalized (multi-purpose) implements. These tools were usually created by striking wood, stone or bone against a harder object.
The Second Stone Age is characterized by the use of flakes stone tools. Flake stones such as shale were now being crafted for more specific uses.
The Third Stone Age (8,000 – 5000 BC) saw the use of polished, highly developed and specialized tools.

The Neolithic Era
The neolithic era was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age.
Settlements became more permanent with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbricks. The husband had one house, while each of his wives lived with their children in surrounding houses.[
Unlike the Paleolithic, where more than one human species existed, only one human species (Homo sapiens sapiens) reached the neolithic.
The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νεολιθικός, neolithikos, from νέος neos, “new” + λίθος lithos, “stone”, literally meaning “New Stone Age.” The term was invented by Sir Hannah Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system.

Periods by region
Fertile Crescent
        Around 9500 BC, the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the fertile crescent. Around 9,000 BC during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), the world’s first town, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. It was surrounded by a stone and marble wall and contained a population of 2000–3000 people and a massive stone tower.[10] Around 6000 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, and Northern Mesopotamia and subsisted on dryland agriculture.

Southern Mesopotamia
        Little rainfall, makes irrigation systems necessary.
        Africans can be traced to have begun raising and domesticating crops and cattle around 15,000 years ago. African peoples have been discovered to have been raising crops of wheat, barley, lentils, dates and other vegetables and grains as far back as the tenth millennium BC.

South and East Asia
        The oldest Neolithic site in South Asia is Mehrgarh from 7000 BC. It lies on the “Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.
        The ‘Neolithic’ (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Polished stone adzes and axes are used in the present day in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. This is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail.

        The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the Paleolithic to the neolithic era. In the paleolithic, people did not normally live in permanent constructions. In the neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster. The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses. The roof was supported by beams from the inside. The rough ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept.
The three-age system divides human technological prehistory into three periods:

The Stone Age
The Bronze Age
The Iron Age
Transition from Stone Age to Bronze and Iron Age
A Stone Age was usually followed by a Bronze Age, during which metalworking technology allowed bronze (copper and tin or other metals) tools to become more common. The transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BC and 2500 BC for much of humanity living in North Africa, Asia and Europe. In some regions, such as Subsaharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by an Iron Age. It is generally believed that the Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BC. Europe, and the rest of Asia became post–Stone Age societies by about 4000 BC. The proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BC, when gold, copper and silver made their entrance, the rest following later. Australia remained in a Stone Age until the 17th century.

The Bronze Age is, with respect to a given prehistoric society, the period in that society when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) included smelting copper and tin from naturally-occurring outcroppings of copper and tin ores, creating a bronze alloy by melting those metals together, and casting them into bronze artifacts. The Bronze Age also included the domestication of the horse.

As regard to metal working, the naturally-occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper/tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before 3000 BC. The Bronze Age is regarded as the second part of a three-age system for prehistoric societies, though there are some cultures that have extensive written records during their Bronze Age. In this system, in some areas of the world the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic age. On the other hand, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Neolithic age is directly followed by the Iron Age.

The place and time of the invention of bronze are controversial. It is possible that bronzing was invented independently in the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus as far back as the mid 4th millennium BC, which would make them the makers of the oldest known bronze; but others date the same Maykop artifacts to the mid 3rd millennium BC. However, the Maykop culture only had arsenic bronze, which is a naturally occurring alloy. Tin bronze, which developed later, requires more sophisticated production techniques; tin has to be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately, then added to molten copper to make the bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of heavy metal usage.

The period is divided into three phases:
Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC),
Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC),
and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c. 500 BC).

In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC.
Early Bronze Age
Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
Old Kingdom
First Intermediate Period of Egypt
Middle Bronze Age
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (Hyksos)
Late Bronze Age
New Kingdom

The Early Formative Period in the Philippines
(The bronze age in the Philippines)
In the Early Formative Period in the Philippines, the full migration of the Malay people began (200 BC to 500 AD). Now artifacts of iron, jade and bronze were in use. The Manunggul Jar is believed to be created by about 890 BC, while the Rice Terraces of the Cordillera began construction at around 800 BC.

The age was marked by increased specialization and the invention of the wheel and the ox-drawn plow. From c. 1000 BC the ability to heat and forge iron brought the Bronze Age to an end.
Formation of cities
Middle Formative Period
500 BC to AD 100 (The Iron Age in the Philippines)

        In the Middle Formative Period, the people in the Philippines began to use iron artifacts, however, there seems to be no indication of the manufacture of these products, thus it is assumed that these artifacts were obtained by trade with outsiders.

Late Formative Period (Iron Age in The Philippines)
    AD 100 to 500
This was a period of loss of focus in Southeast Asian trade, especially in the Philippines, thus causing the local inhabitants to concentrate on inter-island trade and the development of their own artifacts.
Bronze Age collapse (Mesopotamia)
The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, as violent, sudden and culturally disruptive, expressed by the collapse of palace economies of the Aegean and Anatolia, which were replaced after a hiatus by the isolated village cultures of the Dark Ages period of history of the Ancient Near East. The Bronze Age collapse may be seen in the context of a technological history that saw the slow, comparatively continuous spread of iron-working technology in the region, beginning with precocious iron-working in what is now Romania in the 13th and 12th centuries BCE.[1] The cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria,[2] and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Canaan,[3] bringing the interruption of long-distance trade contacts and sudden eclipse of literacy, occurred between 1206 and 1150 BCE. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Troy and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, Ugarit.
The gradual end of the Dark Age that ensued saw the rise of settled Neo-Hittite Aramaean kingdoms of the mid-10th century BCE, and the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Formation of cities

Final technological and cultural stage in the Stone – Bronze – Iron-Age sequence (or Three-Age System) in which iron largely replaced bronze in implements and weapons. The start of the Iron Age varied geographically, beginning in the Middle East and southeastern Europe c. 1200 BC but in China not until c. 600 BC. Though the large-scale production of iron implements brought new patterns of more permanent settlement, use of iron for weapons put arms in the hands of the masses for the first time and set off a series of large-scale movements and conquests that did not end for 2,000 years and that changed the face of Europe and Asia.

It did not begin in the Americas until the coming of the Europeans. Iron beads were worn in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C., but these were of meteoric iron, evidently shaped by the rubbing process used in shaping implements of stone.
 The oldest known article of iron shaped by hammering is a dagger found in Egypt that was made before 1350 B.C. This dagger is believed not to have been made in Egypt but to be of Hittite workmanship. The use of smelted iron ornaments and ceremonial weapons became common during the period extending from 1900 to 1400 B.C.

Artifacts (Iron Age)
Celtic migrations, beginning in the 5th cent. B.C., spread the use of iron into W Europe and to the British Isles. The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène. The casting of iron did not become technically useful until the Industrial Revolution. The people of the Iron Age developed the basic economic innovations of the Bronze Age and laid the foundations for feudal organization. They utilized the crops and domesticated animals introduced earlier from the Middle East. Ox-drawn plows and wheeled vehicles acquired a new importance and changed the agricultural patterns. For the first time humans were able to exploit efficiently the temperate forests. Villages were fortified, warfare was conducted on horseback and in horse-drawn chariots, and alphabetic writing based on the Phoenician script became widespread. Distinctive art styles in metal, pottery, and stone characterized many Iron Age cultures.

Ancient Egyptian Pottery(geometric potteries)

Phoenician Scripts and Hieroglyphics

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